DNA Interactive logo Site Map

Pre 1920 Johann Gregor Mendel, Friedrich Miescher, Carl Erich Correns, Hugo De Vries, Erich Von Tschermak-Seysenegg, Thomas Hunt Morgan
1920-49 Hermann Muller, Barbara McClintock, George Wells Beadle, Edward Lawrie Tatum, Joshua Lederberg, Oswald Theodore Avery, Evelyn Witkin
1950-54 Erwin Chargaff, Rosalind Franklin, Martha Chase, Alfred Day Hershey, Linus Pauling, James Dewey Watson, Francis Harry Compton Crick, Seymour Benzer
1955-59 Francis Harry Compton Crick, Paul Charles Zamecnik, Maholon Hoagland, Matthew Stanley Meselson, Franklin William Stahl, Arthur Kornberg
1960s Sydney Brenner, Marshall Warren Nirenberg, Francois Jacob, Jacques Lucien Monod, Roy John Britten
1970s David Baltimore, Howard Martin Temin, Stanley Norman Cohen, Herbert W. Boyer, Maxine Singer, Richard John Roberts, Phillip Allen Sharp, Roger Kornberg, Frederick Sanger
1980s Leland Hartwell, Christiane Nusslein-Volhard, Eric Francis Wieschaus, Kary Mullis, Alec Jeffreys, Thomas Robert Cech, Sidney Altman, Mario Renato Capecchi
1990s-2000- H. Robert Horvitz, Mary-Claire King, Stephen F. Fodor, Patrick Henry Brown, J. Craig Venter, Francis Collins, John Sulston

Finding the Structure
  Problem What is the structure of DNA?
  Players Erwin Chargaff, Rosalind Franklin, Linus Pauling, James Watson and Francis Crick, Maurice Wilkins
  Pieces of the Puzzle Wilkins' X-ray, Pauling's triple helix, Franklin's X-ray, Watson's base pairing, Chargaff's ratios
  Putting it Together DNA is a double-stranded helix.
Copying the Code
  Problem How is DNA copied?
  Players James Watson and Francis Crick, Sydney Brenner, François Jacob, Matthew Meselson, Arthur Kornberg
  Pieces of the Puzzle The Central Dogma, Semi-conservative replication, Models of DNA replication, The RNA experiment, DNA synthesis
  Putting it Together DNA is used as a template for copying information.
Reading the Code
  Problem How is the DNA code read?
  Players Paul Zamecnik and Mahlon Hoagland, Sydney Brenner, Marshall Nirenberg, Marshall Nirenberg and collaborators, Har Gobind Khorana
  Pieces of the Puzzle Breaking the code, Cell-free extracts, The genetic code, The other codons, Defining the gene
  Putting it Together The DNA code is read in triplets.
Controlling the Code
  Problem How is the DNA code controlled?
  Players François Jacob and Jacques Monod, Walter Gilbert
  Pieces of the Puzzle DNA packaging, The lac operon
  Putting it Together The DNA code is regulated by proteins.

  Problem How do you study a gene?
  Players James Watson, Paul Berg, Herbert Boyer and Stanley Cohen, The controversy
  Pieces of the Puzzle Restriction enzymes, DNA ligation, The first recombinant DNA, DNA transformation
  Putting it Together rDNA: more risk than reward?
  Cutting & Pasting Using enzymes to manipulate DNA
  Transferring & storing Delivering foreign DNA into a cell
  Large-scale analysis Analyzing the activity of thousands of genes
  Sorting & sequencing Determining the size and sequence of DNA fragments
  Amplifying Making many copies of DNA
  Model organisms Using model organisms in research
  Problem Making insulin with recombinant DNA technology
  Players Herbert Boyer, David Goeddel, Walter Gilbert
  Pieces of the Puzzle Synthetic insulin, Synthesizing the DNA, Isolating the DNA, The P4 facility
  Putting it Together Synthetic insulin was made using recombinant DNA

  Flyover How do you study a gene?
  Chromosome close-up James Watson, Paul Berg, Herbert Boyer and Stanley Cohen, The controversy
  Genome FISHing Restriction enzymes, DNA ligation, The first recombinant DNA, DNA transformation
  Genome spots rDNA: more risk than reward?
The Project
  Problem How do you map, sequence, and find all the genes in the human genome?
  Players Pros & cons, Public consortium, Private project, Money, Technology, Competition and the media
  Pieces of the puzzle Maps and markers, Storing DNA, Sequencing head to toe, Whole genome shotgun, Sequencing DNA, Dealing with the data, Finding genes
  Putting it Together Viewing our code for the first time
Genome Mining
  Meaning Meaningful sequences
  DNA Analysis Analyzing DNA
  Gene features What makes up a gene?
  Gene finding Finding genes in DNA
  Gene Boy A multi-function sequence analysis tool

Human Identification
  Profiling DNA variations and fingerprints, The first DNA fingerprints, Today's DNA profile
  Family Sarbah vs. Home Office, Ghana Immigration Case, 1985
  Murder State of Florida vs. Jones and Reesh, Murder at Rodman Dam, 1988
  Innocence The Innocence Project
Recovering the Romanovs
  The Romanov Family The Romanov Family
  The mystery of Anna Anderson The mystery of Anna Anderson
  Science solves a mystery Science solves a mystery
Genes and Medicine
  Gene hunting Mary-Claire King, Mark Skolnick, Markers, The finish line
  Gene testing Barbara Weber, Denise, Making a pedigree, Testing
  Gene profiling Patrick (Pat) Brown, Stephen Fodor, David Botstein, Techniques
  Drug design Brian Druker, The Philadelphia chromosome, Bud's story, How Gleevec™ works
  Gene Targeting Mario Capecchi, Animal models, Techniques, Possibilities
Human Origins
  Our family tree Meet the extended family
  Comparisons Bones, Behavior, DNA
  Gene genealogy Mitochondrial DNA, Y Chromosome, Other genome regions, A molecular clock?, Tracing ancestries
  Migrations Follow the paths, Hear the stories
  Variation Primate diversity, Interviews, Variation activity

Threat of the unfit
  Founders Bringing the eugenics movement to prominence
  The fit and the unfit Pedigrees of the fit and unfit
  Threats The eugenicists' views on the socially "unfit"
  Epilogue Eugenics as the "solution" to social problems
Trial of Carrie Buck
  Prologue Upholding the "legality" of sterilization
  Players Carrie Buck, Emma Buck, Vivian Dobbs, Albert Priddy, Aubrey Strode, Irving Whitehead, Arthur Estabrook, Harry Laughlin, Oliver Wendell Holmes
  Trial Buck vs. Bell: forced sterlization of the "feebleminded"
  Outcome The Supreme Court decision
  Epilogue The truth about Buck vs. Bell
In the Third Reich
  Taking the Torch Nazi eugenics
  The "final" solution "The final solution" to mental illness
  Applying the solution The concentration camps
  Epilogue After World War II
Living with Eugenics
  Living with depression The highs and lows of manic depression
  Kallikak revisited Comparing family pedigrees
  The diagnosis Dealing with the diagnosis
  Epilogue The "eugenic quandary," prenatal testing for manic depression
Copyright 2003, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory. All rights reserved.